Later, the marches converged near the Puduraya-Menara Maybank area. The crowd was estimated to be 10,000 strong. Several unsuccessful attempts to disperse the crowd resulted in a standoff.
Meanwhile, Bersih 2.0 chief Ambiga Sreenevasan, PAS president Abdul Hadi Awang and Batu MP Tian Chua had been arrested.
12.20pm: Pudu Plaza - At Jalan Landak, Pudu, some 200 people have started to gather, preparing for the rally.
Police are scattered about, searching the protestors' bags but take no further action.
A small quarrel breaks out between protestors and Pudu security personnel when latter try to chase them away.
Some foodstalls and restaurants are still open, and a durian stall is seen offering protestors a taste of its wares.
DAP leaders who have shown up include Bukit Bintang MP Fong Kui Lun, PJ Utara MP Tony Pua, Serdang MP Teo Nie Ching, Bukit Bendera MP Liew Ching Tong, Segambut MP Lim Lip Éng, Beruas MP Ngeh Koo Ham, Selangor exco Ean Yong Hian Wah, Lukut Adun Ean Yong Tin Sin, Pasir Pinjir Adun Thomas Soo, Bahau Adun Teo Kok Seong.
12.45pm: Dataran Merdeka - Police have fired tear gas at a group of protestors heading towards the area. The cannisters land near the Bar Council building.
This group is believed to started from the former KTM headquarters nearby. The crowd is estimated to be 1,000.
12.50pm: About 3,000 to 4,000 people are marching from Petaling Street in downtown Kuala Lumpur to Stadium Negara.
They are chanting "Bersih, Bersih, Pilihanraya" and "Hidup, Hidup, Rakyat".
Six middle-aged protestors began a rendition of Negaraku, immediately receiving strong response from the crowd which sings along.
Dr Wong Fort Pin, one of the six singers, said they are celebrating peace.
"We are walking for a better Malaysia," he said.
12.51pm: Hilton Hotel - PKR leaders Nurul Izzah Anwar, Syed Husin Ali, Lateefah Koya arrive at Anwar Ibrahim's hotel room. Local and foreign media are at the lobby.
12.55pm: Pudu Plaza - DAP leader Teresa Kok is defying her ban and leading protesters to start the walk towards Merdeka Stadium.
The crowd is shouting, "Bersih, bersih," "Hidup rakyat" , "Rakyat sudah bangun," and "Daulat Tuanku."
The have at press time reached Shaw Parade, with no sign yet of police interference.
The crowd soon swells to two thousand, with the DAP-led march cleverly sticking to tourist spots at Sungei Wang and Low Yat Plaza past Federal Hotel to foil the police.
They are also sending out motorcycle recces to keep them informed of police presence ahead.
1pm: Masjid Jamek - The crowd here has grown to about 1,000 people and is beginning to march.
Earlier, a student was hit by a tear gas cannister. He refused to have his photograph taken due to his status.
1pm: Pudu-Bukit Bintang - At Jln Puduraya, the DAP-led march of up to 2,000 people reach the city centre, converging with the PKR-led team. The crowd cheers in delight, and chant, "Bersih" and other slogans.
They now gather at the Jln Tun Perak and Jln Pudu junction.
1.10pm: Masjid Negara - The mosque is mostly empty. Some are complaining that the toilets are locked.
1.14pm: A fake Twitter account @bersihrally have appeared, apparently created only at 9.42 this morning.
Claiming to provide "live coverage of the Bersih 2.0 rally, with multiple small groups of volunteers in the field reporting" it has since provided false accounts of the goings-on at the current Bersih 2.0 rally.
Among some of the allegations are looting in Pasar Seni, clashes with the police at KLCC as well as shots being fired in Bangsar.
After being 'outed' by other Twitter users, @bersihrally finally posted a message: "Took you guys long enough to figure it out. I've done my job. Thanks for playing."
1.15pm: Official police figures - 514 arrested. 478 males, 36 females.
1.20pm: Masjid Jamek - There is a standoff here. The growing crowd continues chanting while the police await reinforcements.
1.21am: Top Bersih leaders Ambiga Sreenevasan, Haris Ibrahim, Wong Chin Huat and A Samad Said are in Hilton Hotel. They are with politicians William Leong, Kamaruddin Jaafar, Zaid Kamaruddin, Syed Azman Syed Nawawi and Tian Chua. They join Anwar Ibrahim who is in the hotel.
It is confirmed that PKR deputy president Azmin Ali has been arrested and taken to Pulapol (Police Training Centre).
(Later today, at 5.30pm, PKR sources clarified that Azmin was not arrested).
Earlier, PAS vice-presidents Mahfuz Omar and Salahuddin Ayub were also nabbed.
1.22pm: Petaling Street - The group of a few thousand which is marching to Stadium Negara turn back to Jalan Tan Cheng Lock after encountering a roadblock.
A large group of Sarawakians are chanting 'Hidup Sarawak', receive applause from the rest.
1.30pm: Malaysia Hotel - About 500 Umno Youth members have gathered at Jalan Bukit Bintang. All are wearing red T-shirts with the word 'Patriot'. These T-shirts are also being handed the public, including tourists.
The Umno Youth rally is aided with a pickup truck. Speakers would give speeches from the back of the truck and throw down T-shirts.
Among those present are Umno Youth leaders Arman Azhar, Reezal Merican Naina Merican, Zaki Zahid but there is no sign of the movement's leader Khairy Jamaluddin. His officers insist he will show up later.
The group is currently stationary and chanting "Hancur Bersih" (destroy Bersih) and "Who are we? Patriot!". They narrowly miss a Bersih 2.0 procession by about 10 minutes.
1.30pm: Pudu-Bukit Bintang - The authorities fire tear gas at Jln Tun Perak, forcing the crowd to retreat once, then the angry crowd shouts, "Masuk" (go in) and starts moving toward Jln Tun Perak .
1.33pm: Jalan Tun Perak - PAS leader Dr Hatta Ramli with a loudspeaker tells the crowd of at least 4,000 that party vice-president Mahfuz Omar and about 300 others have been arrested.
"The rakyat's struggle requires sacrifices... Those under 40 here have never seen real democracy in this country," he said.
The crowd reply with "Allahuakbar".
There are traffic marshals from Bersih also directing the crowd to make way for vehicles passing through.
1.35pm: Press statement by IPK KL.
Thus far, 540 people have been arrested (479 male, 58 women, three juvenile) have been arrested for further investigation.
Among the arrested, 11 were wearing yellow Bersih T-shirt and one was wearing a red Patriot T-shirt.
Meanwhile, three individuals believed to be leaders or organisers of the rally were also arrested. They are PAS deputy president Mohamad Sabu, and party veeps Salahuddin Ayub, Mahfuz Omar.
1.36pm: KL Hilton - Bersih leaders hold a press conference and say they will march to Stadium Merdeka and will not give in to intimidation.
National laureate A Samad Said is also there.
S Ambiga says, “the cause of Bersih has been achieved, even before we have taken the first step.”
She said the authorities use of force was useless against the people's will. “No matter what right will always prevail.”
Slamming the mass arrests, Ambiga said their original goals of rallying for electoral reform has grown into something bigger as it has stirred emotions amongst “right thinking rakyat”.
“First, it has stirred a sense of outrage against the exhibition of raw power by our government, that seems to be living in a time warp.
“Secondly, it has stirred in us (the desire) to bring back a sense of balance and decency into our government,” she said.
Thirdly, she said the rakyat are beginning to feel empowered to make change, despite police “intimidation”.
“You cannot quell the voices,” she said.
1.38pm: LRT Masjid Jamek - A police officer with loudhailer announced: “Perhimpunan hari in tak ada kebenaran jadi diminta semua bersurai serta merta atau kami suraikan dengan kekerasan.”
The officer also gave three minutes for the crowd to disperse.
This was met with “takbir” and jeers from the crowd, numbering about more than 500 people.
1.40pm: Menara Maybank - Water cannons unleashed on more than 1,000 protestors.
1.43pm: Masjid Jamek - A group of about 10 general duty police officers with gas masks chased after the protesters who ran helter skelter into Masjid India area. [Watch video - 17 sec]
1.44pm: Menara Maybank - Water cannon truck fires at the crowd a second time, this time with chemical laced irritants mixed with blue dye.
Instead of dispersing, the crowd charged forward. Some were seen hitting the water cannon truck with their bare fist.
This was met with another round of tear gas. The tear gas managed to disperse the crowd slowly.
1.52pm: Masjid Jamek - There are at least four police trucks stationed at Masjid Jamek LRT station.
Crowd has been dispersed by the police tear gas for now, but it is expected they will be regrouped later.
1.55pm: It begins raining in Kuala Lumpur.
1.57pm: Malaysia Hotel - Khairy Jamaluddin appears at the Umno Youth rally and gives out a short speech. He said that Bersih 2.0 cannot be supported because it is infiltrated by opposition parties.
He then leads the crowd in a march towards Stadium Merdeka. They will likely bump into a section of the Bersih 2.0 crowd.
1.59pm: Puduraya - Police fired tear gas on an estimated 10,000-strong crowd, which converges in Puduraya, in front of Menara Maybank. Part of the crowd came in from Masjid Jamek while others are from Petaling Street
Police had to resort to using tear gas after the water cannon failed to stop their advance. People in the crowd appear to be recovering from the tear gas and are coming back together to continue with their march.
2pm: Hilton Hotel - It is still raining cats and dogs outside the hotel and the atmosphere inside is tense as Pakatan leaders prepare to march out into the streets.
Despite the tension, they seem energetic and vowed to carry with their march to Stadium Merdeka once they get past the police barricade already set up outside the hotel waiting for them to emerge.
The Pakatan leaders are surrounded by a gaggle of reporters as they slowly make their way out towards the confrontation with authorities.
2.10pm: Puduraya - The police are increasingly harsh towards protestors. Some are dragged on the road. One protestor was bleeding from the head.
Some police officers were seen punching and pushing protestors who were trying to flee.
In one incident, several protesters were forced to jump off a six-foot high ledge to evade capture.
2.15pm: Puduraya - At Jln Pudu, the Bersih group moves on towards the Maybank building just 500 metres in front of the Umno Youth group who have been stationary.
It appears that both sides are coordinating despite their differences, to ensure members refrain from clashing.
However some Umno Youth members persist in pressing forward, baying for blood.
With them are Umno Youth's Megat Firdouz, Reezal Merican and Arman Azha, all banned from the city.
The Bersih crowd disperses then regroups after FRU charge at them, arresting a few. They are unable to retreat to Petaling Street as the road in front of Kota Raya complex has been cordoned off.
They are forced to disperse into the back lanes behind Angkasa Hotel and Puduraya while the police pick on the dispersed groups, making arrests.
Those distributing flyers and flags to bystanders become easy targets for the cops and are swooped up.
In the ensuing melee, two TV Selangor reporters are mistakenly arrested despite wearing the press tags. However the duo, Abdul Muin Basuri and Norfarahidayu Baharudin are immediately released after other reporters identity them.
2.15pm: Bukit Bintang - Umno Youth's 'Patriot' procession has stalled momentarily.
According to sources within Umno Youth, the group is waiting for 'further clearance' when their desired route to Stadium Merdeka has been blocked by the police.
The group are also waiting for smaller pockets of Umno Youth supporters to march from Kampung Attap and PWTC.
Umno Youth leader Arman Azha is also seen trying to control the crowd from inching ahead.
It has started drizzling.
2.15pm: KL Sentral - Pakatan Rakyat and Bersih leaders are marching towards from the Hilton Hotel towards KL Sentral shouting "Bersih! Bersih!” but are stopped by the police.
People from inside the station are chanting with the leaders as well. PKR vice-president Tian Chua managed to find a weak spot in the police barricade and led the entire delegation through.
The top leaders are expected to march towards Stadium Merdeka.
"The outrageous arrest and mass detentions is most unwarranted especially after the wise advice from the Agong. Bersih has become more than a struggle for electoral reforms but is now for clean politics and governance," said Pakatan leader Anwar Ibrahim.
2.18pm: Pudu-Bukit Bintang - As the drizzle starts, the crowds raise their hands and cheer again, and retreat towards Bukit Bintang.
Penang deputy chief minister II P Ramasamy's political secretary Satees Muniandy reports, “I'm at Jln Pudu. Rain is God's blessing. The crowd is building up especially under the bridge. Thousands are not leaving despite water cannons, tear gas.”
2.20pm: Puduraya - Police moved in to detain dozens of protesters, with officers going in groups of five to six to detain individual protesters.
Incidences of police brutality were seen, with officers allegedly punching and shoving detainees. They were also allegedly seen manhandling female detainees.
Some protesters jumped off a six-foot high ledge to evade capture in possibly one of the most dangerous situations of the day so far.
2.25pm: Brickfields - The Pakatan Rakyat and Bersih 2.0 crowd has managed to emerge from KL Sentral and have entered Jalan Tun Sambanthan where they are met by almost 1,000 supporters.
Bersih 2.0 chief Ambiga Sreenevasan, Anwar Ibrahim, Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, Lim Kit Siang and other personalities are spotted among the crowd.
While proceeding towards the city centre, they were pelted with tear gas cannisters and chaos ensued. A number of top leaders have been arrested.
2.30pm: Human Rights Watch's Asia division deputy director Phil Robertson says, “This is a maelstrom of the Malaysian authorities' own making.
“The failure of the top levels of the Malaysian government to engage in good faith dialogue with citizens demanding basic electoral reforms is the heart of the matter,” he says in a statement, blasting continuing police action against the rallyers.
2.30pm: Puduraya - The 10,000-strong crowd led by PAS leader Dr Hatta Ramli and PKR leader Badrul Hisham Shaharin has regrouped and move towards town centre.
However, the police fire yet another round of tear gas to disperse the crowd.'
2.35pm: Bukit Bintang - The Umno Youth group have stopped in front of Royale Bintang Hotel where they are walking towards another Bersih group at the Jalan Pudu-Bukit Bintang intersection.
2.35pm: Puduraya - Police fire rounds of tear gas into the crowd in quick succession, front of Angkasa Hotel and move in. The protestors hurl the canisters back into the police.
Some police officers, who were earlier seen punching protestors, are spotted with bruised eyes and coughing.
About six are arrested in front of Angkasa Hotel. The rain pounds down on the rally and protestors run helter skelter for shelter. Even the FRU get out of the rain.
The scattered protestors move towards the stadium in small groups of two or three following SMSes from Pakatan leaders asking them to gather there.
2.40pm: Bukit Bintang - Umno Youth's rally stands off with the FRU with neither side budging.
Three are arrested after a scuffle ensues as protestors try to break past the FRU and tear gas is fired.
2.40pm: Puduraya - The crowd here is breaking up into smaller groups. They are believe to be taking separate routes towards Stadium Merdeka.
2.41pm: PDRM Facebook: As of 2pm, 644 arrested - 597 males and 47 females.
2.43pm: Puduraya - In a lighthearted moment at Jln Hang Jebat, members of the procession to the stadium stops to buy ice cream from a hawker, who is doing brisk business.
They are mostly from the 10,000-strong crowd in front of Puduraya earlier.
2.43pm: KL Sentral - Pandemonium breaks out at KL Sentral as police fire tear gas in a closed environment as Bersih 2.0 and opposition leaders attempted to exit the station via Brickfields.
The tear gas forced protesters back into the station, which has been locked down. Journalists outside KL Sentral were barred from entering the station, making it difficult to verify the status of the situation.
It was, however, confirmed that a group of Pakatan leaders and individuals were arrested in the chaos, including Batu MP Tian Chua, Kuala Selangor MP Dzukefly Ahmad, artist Wong Hoy Cheong, PAS president Abdul Hadi Awang's son and three other supporters.
2.45pm: Puduraya - The police curiously arrest about 10 individuals out of a large group who have dispersed into the Tung Shin hospital.
Meanwhile, a man (right) who appears to have fractured his leg during the earlier melee is being attended to by volunteer doctors.
He was lying unattended on the road with his wrists bound by police, before the medical volunteers spotted him.
"The police held me, grabbed my head, bound my wrists and kicked me. There were several of them," said the man, visibly in pain.
2.45pm: KL Sentral - Anwar Ibrahim tweets that he has suffered a minor injury and that his daughter Nurul Hana has been arrested during the melee.
Bersih 2.0 chief Ambiga Sreenevasan confirms that she has been arrested, so too PAS president Abdul Hadi Awang.
2.48pm: Puduraya - The crowd disperses into Tung Shin Hospital and a nearby Chinese school. Police are firing tear gas into the hospital , attempting to disperse the protestors.
There is abrief respite as Subang MP R Sivarasa tries to negotiate with the police to allow protestors to to Masjid Negara.
2.50pm: KL Sentral - PKR vice-president N Surendran told Malaysiakini Anwar is bleeding from the head and injured in one of his knees.
2.52pm: Puduraya - At Jln Hang Jebat near Stadium Merdeka, 3,000 Bersih supporters are gathered here attempting to move over to Stadium Merdeka nearby.
They meet a blockade with barbed wire. The crowd, growing by the minute, groups in front of the cops and chant at them.
Led by PAS election director Hatta Ramli and PKR Johor chief Chua Jui Meng, the crowd calls on the police to remove the barricades to no avail.
The two leaders give a short speech each telling the crowd they have accomplished their mission in arriving at the stadium, despite being unable to enter.
They thank the police and tell the crowd to return to Central Market.
2.55pm: Bukit Bintang - There's a standstill between the Umno Youth's Patriot rally and the FRU with neither side budging.
About three arrests were made when Umno Youth tried to break through the FRU line, breaking out into a scuffle before a tear gas canister was fired.
2.57pm: Bukit Bintang - Umno Youth chief Khairy Jamaluddin has been arrested when he was found to be resting and clearing his eyes from the tear gas fired, at a shack just 100m from the FRU line.
Water cannons and tear gas have also been aimed at the remaining Umno Youth supporters, pushing them back 50m from their original location.
The group has thinned out to about 200.
He wrote on Twitter later that he is being held at the Police Training Academy at Jalan Padang Tembak.
He said that one of his exco members was injured by a tear gas cannister.
"Have been taken Pulapol. FRU tear gas straight at them. Exco Zaki Zahid hurt," he wrote.
3.10pm: PDRM Facebook - The total number of people arrested as of 2.30pm has reached 672.
3.15pm: Puduraya - Police have agreed to give safe passage to the thousands of protesters assembled at Pudu up till Jalan Sultan on condition that they only use half of the road and march peacefully.
The accord was reached after Pakatan parliamentarians R Sivarasa and Ngeh Khoo Ham negotiated with the police, who also decided to allow the crowd to chant as they march.
3.20pm: Puduraya - The crowd has begun to head from Pudu to aJlan Sultan, thanking the police for allowing them safe passage. The 2,000-strong crowd also began singing Negaraku as they marched.
3.22pm: Bukit Bintang - The 300 Umno Youth supporters at Jalan Bukit Bintang in front of Federal Hotel begin to disperse after negotiation with the police.
Claiming moral victory despite only being able to proceed 200m along Jalan Bukit Bintang - still far from their Stadium Merdeka destination - Umno Youth exco Megat Omardin said that their message have been conveyed.
"We have come and we fulfilled our purpose," he told the crowd before another individual led a prayer.
Later, Umno Youth Petaling Jaya Utara chief Arman Azha told Malaysiakini that exco Lokman Noor Adam as well as 20 of their members had been arrested.
Movement head Khairy Jamaluddin, who was also arrested, later tweeted that he had been taken to Pulapol while exco Ahmad Zaki Zahid was injured.
"Have been taken to Pulapol. FRU tear gas straight at us. Exco @zakizahid hurt," he wrote.
3.37pm: Pasar Seni - The triumphant group from Stadium Merdeka marched down Jalan Sultan towards Central Market, but were attacked by polie tear gas near the Pasar Seni LRT Station.
This forced them to retreat down Jalan Sultan.
3.38pm: Pudu - The 2,000-strong crowd at Pudu has now been denied safe passage to Jalan Sultan, and riot police have fired both water cannons and tear gas at the protesters assembled in front of the Tung Shin hospital. The crowd is now sandwiched between two FRU blockades.
The police started spraying the crowd after negotiations broke down between police and Pakatan MPs R Sivarasa and Ngeh Khoo Ham, following confusion over what the crowd is required to do.
It was learnt that the crowd was told to only use one side of the road and march peacefully, while it was understood that the police had wanted them to disperse into smaller groups before they would be allowed to move on.
It is believed that Sivarasa has been detained, though it is not known where he has been taken to.
3.39pm: Pasar Seni - The police fired more than 10 volleys of tear gas at the crowd led by Bersih leader Wong Chin Huat without warning as he was trying to deliver a speech before dispersing.
The volley came while the crowd was singing the national anthem. Most of the people are now seeking shelter under the Pasar Seni LRT station as Wong again lead them in singing Negaraku.
3.40pm: Titiwangsa Lake Gardens - About 20 Perkasa members are seen at a restaurant in Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, following the goings-on of the Bersih 2.0 rally on a television screen. However, the group's president Ibrahim Ali and his deputy were nowhere to be seen.
Ten police officers were seen keeping order at the main door of the recreation park.
Meanwhile, a sad fate befell a bride and groom on their wedding day today as their convoy was not allowed through police cordons, forcing them to walk to the site of the wedding celebrations two kilometres away.
3.49pm: Pudu - The group of Bersih 2.0 supporters caught in a pincer between two police cordons in Tung Shin Hospital have now dispersed after police rushed in to arrest dozens.
Most fled through back roads and alleys in small groups to escape while a hardcore few holed up in the upper parking lot of the hospital. The police subsequently fired tear gas cat them and the last remaining holdouts were either arrested or left voluntarily.
At least 50 were arrested as police broke up the Tung Shin Hospital crowd.
3.50pm: Istana Negara - A small group of Bersih 2.0 steering committee members are marching towards the palace from Midah Hotel. They are awaiting clearance from the palace to submit Bersih 2.0's petition.
3.55pm: Pasar Seni - Bersih leader Wong Chin Huat, after reading out the eight demands of Bersih 2.0, callson the crowd to disperse.
The crowd begins to disperse peacefully with many of them still chanting 'Reformasi' and 'Bersih' under the Pasar Seni LRT station.
This earns them another round round of tear gas.
3.50pm: KL Hilton - At an impromptu press conference, PKR vice-president Nurul Izzah Anwar, N Surendran and PAS deputy secretary general Syed Azman condemn the police brutality that they allege has caused injury to several Pakatan leaders.
They say besides PKR de facto chief Anwar Ibrahim, who has been sent to Pantai Hospital, PAS Shah Alam MP Khalid Samad and Bersih 2.0 leaders Maria Chin Abdullah and national laureate A Samad Said have also sustained injuries.
4pm: Istana Negara - The Bersih 2.0 delegation of about 20 people led by national laureate A Samad Said was stopped by police about 200m away from the palace gates.
Negotiations with the police failed and the group agreed to disperse. However, Samad said he needed to rest and the group left him alone with the police before leaving the area.
4.01pm: PDRM Facebook - Among the top leaders arrested are:
Mahfuz Omar - KL Sentral
Salahuddin Ayub - KL Sentral
Mohamad Sabu - Jalan Mahameru
Fauziah Salleh - KL Sentral
Tian Chua - KL Sentral
S Ambiga - KL Sentral
Hadi Awang - KL Sentral
Azeez Rahim - Jalan Bukit Bintang
4.10pm: Light Rail Train (LRT) stations still closed, according to RapidKL - Pasar Seni, KL Sentral, Masjid Jamek and Dang Wangi.
4.21pm: After almost four hours of cat-and-mouse confrontation with the police in downtown Kuala Lumpur, most of the protesters have dispersed.
The Bersih committee is to call press conference at 4.45pm at Midah Hotel.
4.40pm: Pudu - Suhakam commissioner Muhammad Sha'ani B Abdullah condemns the authorities for their harsh handling of the protesters.
The police force has not only disrespected the people's right of assembly but also compromised the safety and health of the public by firing tear gas into the Tung Shin hospital compound.
When asked how the people should respond to such violations, he said Malaysians should choose representatives who can protect their rights.
4.50pm: Fadiah Nadwa Fikri of Lawyers for Liberty says that the police have invoked section 28A(8) of the Criminal Procedure Code - denial of access to lawyers - at Pulapol (Police Training Centre), where she says 1,000 people are being detained.
According to her, this is a violation of Article 5 of constitution.
5.34pm: PDRM Facebook - As of 3.30pm, a total of 924 people have been arrested.
6.30pm: Police say 1,401 protesters were arrested during the day-long operation, including 13 children. The authorities estimate the crowd turn out between 5,000 to 6,000.
6.45pm: IPK KL - Ambiga Sreenevasan has been released from detention. KL CID chief Ku Chin Wa said that the police would decide whether to take action against her after investigations are concluded.
______ .........zzZ...........______ ..........Zzz.......... 晚安！
盧冠廷作曲 作詞羅啟銳 主唱：李治廷
幸福是什么，幸福就是另人感到高兴或欢乐事情或境遇。在人们的眼中，每一件事情都能让你感到幸福，有的人认为取得一 个优异的成绩是幸福，有的人认为在寒冷中获得一声祝福是一种祝福，有的人认为赚到一份靠自己努力来的钱是一种幸福。而在我眼里，倾听别人和想别人诉说则是 一种幸福。
记得那是一个刮着风的下午，我因为考试考砸了而怕回家后会遭到骂，便慢吞吞地垂头丧气地向家里走去，途中，遇到了昔 日的一位好友，他见我一副垂头丧气的模样，便走过来对我说：“你怎么一副萎靡不振的模样？”我勉强笑着说：“唉，考试考不好，回家怕被爸爸妈妈骂。”他拉 着我的手，我们坐在路旁的小椅子上，他本来安慰我几句，可是我一坐下，就对他说起了考试考不好这件事，在我说话的时候，他没能插上一句话，他也一句话都没 说当他，当我向他诉说完后觉得我们轻松了许多，而他也只在最后安慰了我一句：“别担心，勇敢去面对吧！”我听了这一句话，仿佛感觉我们身体里充满了热量， 仿佛在我们要摔下山崖那一刻，有人伸出热情的援助之手将我扶起，又像是在我生命垂危时，一位医生治好了我的病。使我顿时感到十分腋！?
而那是一次下着雨的早晨，好友敲响了我家的门，他告诉我他的父母因为闹别扭而吵架的事，他被夹在中间，不知如何是 好，他与我坐在椅子上说话，这次，我没能插上一句话，只是默默地倾听他的心声，他最后是含着泪水走的，但是后来，他的父母又和好了，他也变得快乐了，但是 他却来感谢我，感谢我在那飘雨的早晨的倾听，因为我的倾听，使他欲破碎的心情舒畅了许多。这不正是幸福的感觉吗？
香港中文大学精神科学系荣润国教授带来他的得意门生李馨。她的一篇论文已经获得外国医学期刊接纳，正等候 刊出。那是关于梦和日间情绪的研究，对象包括到精神科复诊的抑郁症和焦虑症患者，李馨请他们醒来后回溯梦境，结果发现，这些在日间饱受情绪折腾的人，到了 晚上仍然得不到心灵平静：他们的噩梦特别多，这似乎还跟自杀倾向有关。
科学家研究梦境的方式主要分两种：一种像李馨那样，请研究对象在 日间自行忆述梦境；另一种则复杂得多，受访者要驳上电极，探测脑电波信号(EEG)，再在睡眠实验室过一夜。这一夜将十分难熬，因为研究员会根据脑电波显 示，在受访者睡得最香的那当儿(即速眼动期，Rapid Eye Movement, REM)唤醒他，请他描述当下的梦境。
“首 先，回溯式研究依赖病人自己的回忆，当中一定有报告偏差(reporting bias)，因为人们倾向只记得对自己有意义的梦境，例如故事比较完整的、以及情绪较激烈的，尤其是噩梦。而且，人们说自己多梦，也不代表他们一定发了很 多梦。他们发梦的频率可能跟别人一样，只是因为睡得不好，常常惊醒，记得的片段也就是特别多。”
香 港大学精神医学系临床医疗心理学主管李永浩教授补充说，即使研究员不介入梦境，来自睡眠实验室的研究结果，亦非百分百可靠。因为研究对象很难具代表性。 “什么人肯这样在实验室睡两晚，预备随时被弄醒？志愿者可能都有某些相同的特质。”还有一个致使伤：资金。“花大钱用睡眠实验室做研究，会得出什么结果？ 有什么好处？这些都是研究员必须回答的问题。”
我 们什么时候发梦？睡着时，没错，但科学家的答案当然不止这一条。科学家已经知道，睡眠不止睡着而已，发梦也不仅一种。原来，我们的睡眠大概可以分为两个阶 段：非速眼动期(Non Rapid Eye Movement, NREM)和速眼动期(Rapid Eye Movement, REM)，期间的大脑表现迥异，做的梦也不同。
速 眼动的意思很直接：它其实描述了眼珠迅速转动的状态。这是1959年的偶然发现，芝加哥大学睡眠研究实验室的科学家观察睡着了的孩子，发现他们每隔一段时 间，眼皮底下便会“眼仔碌碌”，即是眼睑盖上，眼珠却在乱窜。要知道里头到底葫芦卖什么药，科学家用了最残忍的办法——干脆叫醒他们直接问问。由此得出一 个有趣现象：速眼动期间，这些人十居其九都在发梦，而且都能描述刚刚出现的梦境。
有了探测 脑电波的仪器后，科学家又添新发现。速眼动期的大脑，原来活跃得很，跟日间的脑电波十分相近，压根儿不像在休息；相比之下，非速眼动期的脑电波就显得很平 静了。他们还把这些波段画成图表，于是发现，睡眠是以周期形式进行的，由非速眼动到速眼动期为一个周期，每晚要进行4至5次之多。这些周期的组合还会变 化，最明显的是，上半晚的速眼动期较短，每节只有10至12分钟左右，下半晚则较长，约有20多分钟。
科 学家替我们做了一条加数：人们每晚大约有两小时速眼动期，那么一生人大概就有6年了。你能想像吗？一生人中，我们有整整6年活在梦境里。不过，这十多年 来，科学家又发现，这个数算是低估了：因为不仅速眼动期有梦，非速眼动期也有梦。不过，非速眼动期的梦都是零碎的、不连贯的，绝大部分无法解读，也就很难 记得起了。
最 绘形绘色的一个，发生在一位德国化学家身上。19世纪，科学家一直无法理解，苯分子那6个碳原子和6个氢原子，怎能完全对称，排列成稳定的分子结构？这个 谜底终于在1864年一个冬夜给解开了。化学家凯库勒在壁炉前睡着，那些愚弄着很多科学家的原子和分子们，开始在他的脑海内漫舞。突然，一条碳原子链像蛇 一样咬住自己的尾巴，并且旋转。这让凯库勒明白一个道理：苯分子原来是个环，难怪大家都摸错门路了。这个理论后来被多番补充和修正，但这条“蛇”——代表 苯分子的那个六角形圈圈，至今仍然安稳地位列我们的化学教科书内。
最危急的梦，发生在一位美国发明家身上。19世纪40年代，埃利亚 斯·豪梦见自己成为野蛮人的锅上菜，眼见矛头就要砍到头上来，他还有本事在千钧一发间，瞄到长矛顶端竟然开了一个洞。这个启发，让他颠覆了当时缝纫机的设 计，把穿线的洞改到针尖的一端。这就是现代缝纫机的最初。
要是梦能排解疑难，那真个是懒人福音！但李永浩随即破除我的幻想：“梦不能无 中生有，我不相信做梦能启发。”那么何解会出现这些经典的梦？他说这里头也有科学解释：清醒时我们用的大脑部位，跟入睡后不一样，“所以，日间想不通的， 到了梦中反而可能有收获。因为大脑开启了新想法新思维。”
2. 芝麻 -芝麻它的「亚麻仁油酸」可以去除附在血管内的胆固醇，令新陈代谢更好，减肥收腿就轻松得多。
5. 红豆 -所含的石碱酸成分可以增加大肠的蠕动，促进排尿及减少便秘，从而清除下身脂肪。
6. 木瓜 -它有独特的蛋白分解酵素，可以清除因吃肉类而积聚在下身的脂肪，而且木瓜肉所含的果胶更是优良的洗肠剂，可减少废物在下身积 聚。
7. 西瓜 -它是生果中的利尿专家，多吃可减少留在身体中的多余水分，而且本身的糖分也 ，多吃也不会致肥。
9. 西柚 -柚大家早早便知西柚卡路里极低，多吃也不会肥，但原来它亦含丰富钾质，有助减少下半身的脂肪和水分积聚。
10. 蒟蒻 -完全不含脂肪又美味，说到底也是减肥必食之物，原来它的丰富植物纤维更可以使下身的淋巴畅通，防止腿部肿得松泡泡。
12. 西芹 -一方面含有大量的钙质，可以补「脚骨力」，另一方面亦含有钾，可减少下半身的水分积聚。
13. 花生 -含有极丰富的维他命b2和菸碱酸，一方面带来优质蛋白质，长肉不长脂，其次亦可以消下身脂肪肥肉。
14. 奇异果 -除了维他命c是它的强项外，原来其纤维亦十分丰富，可以增加分解脂肪的速度，避免腿部积聚过多的脂肪。
15. 番茄 -吃新鲜的番茄可以利尿及去除腿部疲惫，减少水肿的问题，如果是生吃的话，效果就更好
马来西亚在杜绝贫穷方面取得了傲人的成就。根据大马第九计划的年中评估，极端贫穷率跌至 0.7%， 只有3.6% 的大马人口收入低于贫穷线下。
但是，贫穷的定义不是按照教科书而设定的。马来西亚政府定义贫穷为缺乏赚取足够金钱的能力以换取生活的基本需求，这可分为粮食和非粮食组别，分别以非粮食和粮食贫穷收入指数[Poverty Line Income (PLI)]来衡量。
但是，政府所设定的PLIs 遭受了不少评击声浪，包括 :
1. Centre for Public Policy Studies, National Summit on Urban Poor and Low Income Groups 2008 Policy Factsheet:Urban Poverty
2. Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unup
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